In this study, a literature review was conducted to establish the background of current specifications and to evaluate the applicability of various theories and methods for design of end zone reinforcement. Analytical methods reviewed in this paper include finite element analysis, strut-and-tie modeling, and the Gergely-Sozen equivalent beam method. Previous experimental work combined with work conducted as part of this study was used to correlate between various theoretical and experimental results. This paper illustrates that no single theoretical method adequately represents the complex behavior at the end of a pretensioned concrete member. A general semi-empirical design procedure is proposed here. It is based on theoretical behavior and experimental observation. Standard reinforcement details are given. The proposed procedure could result in significant reduction in the amount of reinforcement while maintaining acceptable crack control at the member end. Application of the proposed procedure to highly pretensioned bridge girders is demonstrated.
Tuan, Christopher Y.; Yehia, Sherif A.; Jongpitaksseel, Nipon; and Tadros, Maher K., "End Zone Reinforcement for Pretensioned Concrete Girders" (2004). Civil Engineering Faculty Publications. 1.