Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Beginning with the work of Webb (1969), a line of research has developed attempting to explain how the socialization experiences of children and adolescents help transform their attitudes toward play. In Webb's view, the transformation to a state of being "professionalized" has occurred when an emphasis on equity and fairness, which are pronounced at earlier stages of development, has been replaced by a focus on winning. The body of research that hasdeveloped from this original formulation has consistently identified age and gender differences (Loy , Birrell, & Rose, 1976; Maloney & Petrie, 1972; Mantel & VanderVelden, 1971) in play attitudes, with males being more highly professionalized than females, and adolescents and young adults more professionalized than preadolescents.
Greer, Donald L. and Stewart, Michael J., "Children's Attitudes Toward Play: An Investigation of Their Context Specificity and Relationship to Organized Sport Experiences" (1989). Health, Physical Education and Recreation Faculty Publications. 4.