Author ORCID Identifier

Huang -

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



This panel aims to explore selected cases of smart city projects to improve our understanding of the critical institutional factors and processes that lead to effective and sustainable smart city outcomes. This panel discusses compelling smart city cases, including Busan Metropolitan City, Songdo, Gimpo, and Namyang-ju. These cases apply different approaches to run smart city practices that are characterized as either a large-scale, top-down, capital-intensive and hardware-focused smart city project or a small-scale, bottom-up, less capital-intensive and data-training focused (as opposed to hardware-focused) smart city project. This panel will highlight the varying outcomes and impacts of different smart city approaches and identify key institutional factors and strategies that contribute to effective and sustainable smart city outcomes.


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This paper was accepted for publication in Proceedings of the 21st Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research, pp. 380-382 978-1-4503-8791-0