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Spring 2007


Purpose: Test-retest reliability of the Functional Reach Test was examined in children with typical development by comparing standard and alternate methods.

Methods: Eighty subjects ages seven to 16 years were tested and 69 retested for four methods of Functional Reach Test (ie, one-arm finger-to-finger, two-arm finger-to-finger, one-arm toe-to-finger, and two-arm toe-to-finger). Intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement were calculated.

Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients were high in toe-to-finger measurement methods (0.97– 0.98) for the entire group and specific age groups (00.83–0.93). Toe-to-finger methods were more reliable than finger-to-finger methods. The two-arm toe-to-finger method had the best limis of agreement with approximately ±5 cm indicated by the 95% confidence interval.

Conclusions: Test-retest reliability using a toe-to-finger method of measuring is stronger than previously reported when using traditional methods. Limits of agreement analyses imply a change of 5 cm or more is likely to represent a true clinical difference when using the two-arm toe-to-finger method.


This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in Volkman, K.G., Stergiou, N., Stuberg, W., Blanke, D., Stoner, J. (2007) Methods to improve the reliability of the functional reach test in children and adolescents with typical development. Pediatric Physical Therapy. 19(1): 20-7.

The final version of this article can be found at:

Journal Title

Pediatric Physical Therapy





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