The goal of this study was to enhance robotic surgical training via real-time augmented visual feedback. Thirty novices (medical students) were divided into 5 feedback groups (speed, relative phase, grip force, video, and control) and trained during 1 session in 3 inanimate surgical tasks with the da Vinci Surgical System. Task completion time, distance traveled, speed, curvature, relative phase, and grip force were measured immediately before and after training and during a retention test 2 weeks after training. All performance measures except relative phase improved after training and were retained after 2 weeks. Feedback-specific effects showed that the speed group was faster than other groups after training, and the grip force group applied less grip force. This study showed that the real-time augmented feedback during training can enhance the surgical performance and can potentially be beneficial for both training and surgery.
Judkins, Timothy N.; Oleynikov, D.; and Stergiou, Nicholas, "Enhanced Robotic Surgical Training Using Augmented Visual Feedback" (2008). Journal Articles. 156.