Sensory information the foot receives appears to be related to kinematic variability. Since footwear material densities affect sensory information, footwear may be an important factor that dictates variability. This study hypothesized that modifications in footwear would result in changes in kinematic variability during the running stance period. Subjects ran on a treadmill for three conditions: hard shoe, soft shoe and barefoot. The spanning sets of the mean ensemble curves of the knee and ankle changes for each condition were used to define variability. Variability was significantly larger in the barefoot condition in comparison with the two footwear conditions for both joints. These results suggest that variability can be affected by peripheral sensory information. The spanning set methodology can be utilized to examine changes in variability.
Gait & Posture
Kurz, Max J. and Stergiou, Nicholas, "The spanning set indicates that variability during the stance period of running is affected by footwear" (2003). Journal Articles. 162.