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Stergiou -

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Purpose: Chest compression release velocity (CCRV) has been associated with survival and favorable neurological outcome after cardiac resuscitation. Both complete chest release and high CCRV contribute to improved venous return during CPR. Differences in compression forces delivered by professional and lay rescuers are reported, which may contribute to differences in CCRV. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate differences in ground reaction force (GRF) and CCRV between professional and lay rescuers during CPR performed on a manikin with and without real-time feedback.

Methods: Professional (n = 5) and lay rescuers (n = 11) performed two minutes of continuous compressions on a manikin positioned over a force plate for two trials. CPR feedback provided by a defibrillator was disabled in the first trial and enabled in the second. CPR pads containing an accelerometer were used to calculate individual compression characteristics. Relative maximum and minimum GRFs were calculated for each compression cycle and averaged over each trial. Paired and independent sample t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted in STATA 15.1.

Results: CCRV was higher in professionals vs. lay rescuers with feedback disabled and enabled (p<0.05). Professionals had greater maximal and lower minimum forces than lay rescuers without feedback (p<0.05), though there were no differences between groups with feedback enabled (Table 1). CCRV was associated with minimum force (r = -0.63, p<0.01) and force range (r = 0.78, p<0.01) in all rescuers. Analysis of GRFs by CCRV for all rescuers indicated lower force minimum (9.71 + 3.16 N, p<0.05) with CCRV >400 mm/s in comparison to CCRV 300-400 mm/s (39.73 + 8.91 N) and CCRV 200-300 mm/s (63.82 + 16.98 N).

Conclusions: CPR feedback attenuated differences in GRF between professional and lay rescuers. CCRV was greater in professionals and was associated with measures of GRF, and thus may serve as an indicator of both velocity and amount of chest release.


This is the accepted version of an abstract published in Circulation on November 11, 2019 and can be accessed at

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