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Dinkel -

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Fostering physical activity, muscle strengthening and communication skills in diverse environments are vital to ensuring healthy infant development; however, promotion of these skills may be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore healthcare workers, parents and childcare providers' perceptions of the pandemic's influence on how they engage with infants to promote physical activity, muscle strength and communication.


37 subjects (12 = parents; 12 = childcare providers, 13 = healthcare workers) participated in a semi-structured interview. Data were analyzed via an inductive content analysis.


The majority of caregivers identified concerns related to: limitations in social interactions (especially masks impacting communication), lack of access to peer modeling, fewer opportunities for physical exploration, and a need for creative activities in diverse environments (e.g., home/childcare) for infant development during and after the pandemic.


Caregivers are concerned about the role COVID-19 is having on infant development. Additional resources on how to promote infant physical activity, muscle strength and communication despite challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic are needed.


This article is published in ScienceDirect's Acta Psyhcologica volume 222 on December 28, 2021 and can be accessed at

It is licensed through Creative Commons license CC BY NC ND

Journal Title

Acta Psycholgica



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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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