Journal of Black Psychology
This literature review and analysis focuses on the historical reference group orientation and personal identity study material done on Blacks in the United States. It argues that these studies were critically flawed in the sense that they made inappropriate assumptions about the link between the two kinds of measures that are the respective foci of their inquiry (i.e., personal identity and group self-esteem). As a result, their conclusions and implications, in terms of the development of psychological and sociological theories based upon their findings, constitute a major obstacle to the ultimate and accurate understanding of the processes of development of Black self-esteem and collective spirit.
Imani, Nikitah O., "The Clarity and Confusion Offered by Historical Personal Identity Studies" (1995). Black Studies Faculty Publications. 5.