Document Type

Letter to the Editor

Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Sound and Vibration





First Page


Last Page



In assembly structures or places where crowds may gather such as dance halls, theaters, gymnasia and stadia, the loading is almost entirely caused by human activities. Structural resonance or near resonance and the resulting vibrations causing discomfort of spectators have often been observed during a rock concert or a sporting event. Recent research efforts have focused on developing load models to quantify the dynamic loading effects induced by individuals and groups up to 40 people. The lack of coherence of motion from a large crowd, the so-called ‘‘group effect’’, has been quantified based on simulations. The simulation results and the load models thus developed should be verified against actual field data from assembly structures before they are adopted into building codes and standards.


NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Sound and Vibration. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 269, Issue 5 (January 2004) DOI: 10.1016/S0022-460X(03)00406-1.