In the fall of 1981, in conjunction with American City and County, the author undertook a detailed survey to determine the extent to which cart-based automated or semi-automated refuse collection operations are in use in the United States. An eighteen page questionnaire listing all suspected sites using cart-based systems in residential collection was sent to the known manufacturers and vendors of these systems for verification and completion.
Norris, Donald F., "National Survey of Cart-Based Automated and Semi-Automated Residential Refuse Collection Systems" (1982). Publications. 169.