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This paper re-examines and updates a controversial historical economic analysis, presented almost 45 years ago by Robert William Fogel1 and Stanley L. Engerman in their “Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery (1974).” The authors purported their work has two main objectives: 1) to revise an erroneous, “traditional” characterization of the slave economy and myths about black slaves themselves and 2) to apply rapid advances in economics, quantitative statistics, applied mathematics and the availability of high-speed computers to analyze large data sets, to re-examine and better understand the institution of slavery.