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Armstrong (Styve)-

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International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology





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Two theoretical explanations, importation and deprivation, are commonly used to explain inmate adjustment to the correctional environment. This study examined the relation- ship of selected importation and deprivation factors on juveniles’ anxiety levels while they were confined to institutions. Self-reported data collected from 3,986 juveniles and aggregate level data collected from interviews with administrators at 48 U.S. correctional facilities were used in a probit regression analysis. Importation and deprivation factors were found to have a significant impact on juveniles’ anxiety levels. Youth who were younger, White, or had a history of exposure to family violence experienced more anxiety. Youth confined to an institution modeled after military boot camps reported higher levels of anxiety. Juveniles who perceived their institution as having less justice and permitting less activity reported more anxiety. Consistent with prior literature, support was provided for a combined theoretical model of importation and deprivation factors for explaining juveniles’ institutional adjustment.


This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Sage in International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology on August 2000, available online:

Reuse restricted to noncommercial and no derivative uses.

This article by co-author, Gaylene S. Armstrong, was published under her maiden name, Gaylene J. Styve.

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