Author ORCID Identifier

Justin Nix

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Criminology & Public Policy






Research Summary

Using open‐source data from the Gun Violence Archive (GVA), we analyze national‐ and state‐level trends in fatal and nonfatal firearm assaults of U.S. police officers from 2014 to 2019 (N = 1,467). Results show that (a) most firearm assaults are nonfatal, (b) there is no compelling evidence that the national rate of firearm assault on police has substantially increased during the last 6 years, and (c) there is substantial state‐level variation in rates of firearm assault on police officers.

Policy Implications

GVA has decided strengths relative to existing data sources on police victimization and danger in policing. We consider the promises and pitfalls of this and other open‐source data sets in policing research and recommend that recent state‐level improvements in use‐of‐force data collection be replicated and expanded to include data on violence against police.


This is the peer reviewed version of the following article:

Sierra‐Arévalo, Michael, and Justin Nix. “Gun Victimization in the Line of Duty.” Criminology & Public Policy 19, no. 3 (2020): 1041–66. .

which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.

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