Document Type


Publication Date



Victim-offender conferencing programs have expanded the type of victims involved in restorative rituals. However, little research has examined how variations in victim presence might impact these interventions. The aim of this study was to examine whether conferences involving actual victims resulted in higher reparation completion and how surrogate characteristics might impact reparation outcomes. Using regression modeling, we estimated how the variables of interest predicted reparation completion. Conferences with surrogates had a higher probability of completion than those with actual victims. Using surrogates may be a promising strategy to expand restorative justice practices when actual victim participation is not possible.

Included in

Criminology Commons