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Pashto and Math

Grade 1

Language: Pashto

Printed: 1371

Publication Date



Afghanistan? Education Center for Afghanistan?


Pashto language, mathematics, study and teaching


This book was identified to Archives and Special Collections staff by a researcher as being one of the textbooks containing violent imagery. Copy 1 is intact. Copy 2 has been crudely censored with a large section torn away. The removed section featured math problems illustrated with guns, bullets, knives, grenades, and similar imagery. Copy 1 is the download and Copy 2 is the additional file. From 1986 through 1994, the University of Nebraska at Omaha Center for Afghanistan Studies, under a grant from the United States Agency for International Development, funded the printing and distribution of Pashto and Dari textbooks in Afghanistan. The textbooks included violent imagery, both in the text and the illustrations, promoting jihad against the Soviet invaders who occupied Afghanistan at that time. The Center for Afghanistan Studies and USAID both assert that the content of the textbooks was provided by the Afghan mujahideen resistance groups, not by CAS or USAID. Although official printing of the textbooks with the violent imagery ceased circa 1989-1992, old copies and unauthorized reprints continued to circulate in Afghanistan. Cataloged from English-language sticker affixed to cover by the UNO Center for Afghanistan Studies. Requires full cataloging by a cataloger with Pashto language expertise. The English-language sticker identifying this book gives the publication date as 1371 (Gregorian year 1992-1993), but the publication date listed on the back cover is 1369 (Gregorian year 1990/1991). Published in Solar Hijri year 1369.

Pashto and math, grade 1

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