Document Type


Publication Date



School leaders must be fully prepared to respond to all types of threats that occur. In order to respond to threats most appropriately the school needs to have a systematic approach that combines education, prevention, intervention, discipline, security and crisis preparedness measures. All threats must be assessed carefully and swiftly balancing the First Amendment rights of the student making the threat and the safety of the school. All threats are not equal but, all must be dealt with.


This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues, and Ideas, Vol. 84, No. 4 (April 2011), pp. 155-159. For the final version of the article as published in The Clearing House, April 2011 (© 2011 Taylor & Francis), available online at