Date of Award

Fall 2021

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Tamara J. Williams


Hope is an important thing to study. Hope has been shown to have favorable outcomes for students. It has partially mediated the positive relationship between socioeconomic status and academic achievement (i.e., GPA) in young students (Dixson et al., 2018) and it has been proven to increase college students’ GPA and their likelihood to graduate college (Snyder et al., 2002). Hope has also been linked to lower mental health concerns and increase work productivity (Lopez, 2013). However, measures of hope for adults in the school setting (teachers, school psychologist, paraprofessionals, etc.) are rare. Therefore, the development of a reliable hope measure (i.e., SWSS) for adults in an educational environment is important to help keep hope in focus at schools and aid in the development of assets in educators. Additionally, the interpretation of hope within our current context of COVID-19 by specialized staff, such as school psychologists, has revealed the agency thoughts, pathway strategies, and overall barriers they have experienced to position the value of hope to help mitigate the effects of future crises.


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