Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Elliott Ostler


Some public schools are failing English Learners (Calderón, 2011). English Learners are not maintaining their first language and therefore historically lag behind their English-only peers (Johnson, 2022). Failure to maintain first language negatively affects intellectual, educational, personal, social, and economic development. No area of second language research has received as much attention and remained as elusive as the influence of the first language (Jarvis, 2000). This modified mini meta-analysis investigates the developmental impact of first language maintenance of English learners in Dual Language Programs. This study seeks to improve understanding of the most effective ways to educate ELs. It is evident that dual language programs are one of the most effective models for teaching ELs, as dual language programs focus on first language maintenance. This study will answer questions about how to move forward and provide the best educational model for the increasing numbers of English Learners while examining intellectual, educational, personal, social, and economic development.


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