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International Journal Environmental Research and Public Health






The intima–media thickness (IMT), luminal diameters (LDs), flow velocities (FVs), compliance, and β-stiffness of the carotid artery (CA) are considered as independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Pre-hypertension (PHT) is also an independent CVD risk factor. This study investigated the association between CA damage (CAD) and PHT. A total of 544 adults participated; their blood pressures (BPs) and CA characteristics were measured using a mercury-free sphygmomanometer and ultrasound. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to assess the differences in the CA characteristics according to the BPs, multinomial logistic regression to evaluate the risk of CAD associated with PHT. In ANCOVA, the CA characteristics of PHT were significantly different from normotensive. The odds ratios (ORs) of IMTmax, LDmax, LDmin, peak-systolic FV (PFV), end-diastolic FV (EFV), PFV/LDmin, EFV/LDmax, compliance, and β-stiffness of PHT were 4.20, 2.70, 3.52, 2.41, 3.06, 3.55, 3.29, 2.02, and 1.84 times higher than those of the normotensive, respectively, in Model 2. In Model 3 adjusted for age, the ORs of LDmax, LDmin, EFV, PFV/LDmin, and EFV/LDmax of PHT were 2.10, 2.55, 1.96, 2.20, and 2.04 times higher than those of the normotensive, respectively. Therefore, the present study revealed that CAD is closely correlated with pre-hypertensive status in adults.


This is an open access article licensed under Creative Commons Attribution license Park J, Na Y, Jang Y, Park S-Y, Park H. Correlation of Pre-Hypertension with Carotid Artery Damage in Middle-Aged and Older Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(20):7686.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.