When test vectors are applied to a circuit, the fault coverage increases. The rate of increase, however, could be circuit dependent. A relation between the average fault coverage and circuit testability is developed in this paper. The statistical formulation allows computation of coverage for deterministic and random vectors. We discuss the following applications of this analysis: determination of circuit testability from fault simulation, coverage prediction from testability analysis, prediction of test length, and test generation by fault sampling.
Seth, Sharad C.; Agrawal, Vishwani D.; and Farhat, Hassan, "A Statistical Theory of Digital Circuit Testability" (1990). Mathematics Faculty Publications. 2.