When test vectors are applied to a circuit, the fault coverage increases. The rate of increase, however, could be circuit-dependent. In fact, the actual rise of fault coverage depends on the characteristics of vectors, as well as, on the circuit. The paper shows that the average fault coverage can be computed from circuit testability. A relationship between fault coverage and circuit testability is derived. The mathematical formulation allows computation of coverage for deterministic and random vectors. Applications of this analysis include: determination of circuit testability from fault simulation, coverage prediction from testability analysis, prediction of test length, and test generation by fault sampling.
Seth, Sharad; Agrawal, Vishwani; and Farhat, Hassan, "A Theory of Testability with Application to Fault Coverage Analysis" (1989). Mathematics Faculty Publications. 3.