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The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has made millions of dollars available through the Targeted Violence and Terrorism Prevention (TVTP) Grant Program to help communities across the United States develop capabilities to combat terrorism and targeted violence. Given this investment, a key objective is ensuring the long-term impact of these programs, which depends on their sustainment beyond the initial grant. Thus, the purpose of this report is to review the relevant literature on program sustainability and discuss implications for the TVTP Grant Program. We began the review by exploring definitions of sustainability as well as similar social programming concepts, such as adaptation, scalability, and impact. Our review found no consensus definition for prevention program sustainability, suggesting the TVTP Grant Program should develop a bespoke definition guided by strategic program priorities and incorporating other social programming concepts as needed. We then examined the determinants, or factors related positively to long-term programmatic success, of sustainability. All determinants relate to capacity building at two levels: 1. Organizational (Internal). Internal organizational capacity is impacted by (a) internal stakeholder buy-in and engagement, (b) adequacy of personnel resources, particularly in terms of expertise, (c) the presence of ongoing evaluation activities to support adaptations, and (d) support from the funding agency. 2. Community (External). External community capacity is impacted by (a) external stakeholder buy-in and continued engagement beyond the initial award, and (b) the fit between the program offerings and community needs.