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Executive Overview:

• Families often express some form of disapproval to relatives involved in white supremacist extremism (WSE);

• Expressions of disapproval are often limited to “staying out of trouble” or involve limited to no clearly defined intervention;

• Families fear “closing doors” will increase the likelihood they will push their relative away;

• Families rarely seek out formal assistance from either governmental or non-governmental agencies;

• While nearly 34% of the sample received counseling during childhood and/or adolescence, none of those counseling sessions addressed WSE; the counseling focused exclusively on non-WSE issues (e.g., academic failure, generic delinquency, etc.).