Western Journal of Nursing Research
The first anniversary for older widows (n = 47) has been explored during Months 11, 12, and 13. Concurrent correlations show that optimism inversely correlates with psychological (intrusion and avoidance) stress as measured with the Impact of Event Scale (r = —.52 to —.66, p < .005) and positively correlates with well-being (physical: r = .36 to .46, p < .025; psychosocial: r = .58 to .72, p < .005; spiritual: r = .50 to .69, p < .005). Lagged correlation patterns suggest that higher levels of optimism at a given time are associated with higher life satisfaction and spiritual well-being at later times. Psychological stress is higher at Month 12 when compared to Month 13, t(43) = 2.54, p = .01, but not when compared to Month 11, t(43) = 1.49, p > .10. There are no significant differences in physiologic stress (salivary cortisol) or well-being during the first anniversary of spousal bereavement.
Minton, Mary E.; Hertzog, Melody; Barron, Cecilia R.; French, Jeffrey; and Reiter-Palmon, Roni, "The First Anniversary: Stress, Well-Being, and Optimism in Older Widows" (2009). Psychology Faculty Publications. 60.