Several communications tools are used by emergency management agencies (EMAs) to disseminate emergency alerts and warnings, including sirens, television, radio and telephones. In recent years, some EMAs have begun to use social media for a variety of emergencies to relay important information to the public and to engage the citizenry in useful discussions on preparedness and recovery. In a 2014 survey of 139 FEMA approved alert authorities, nearly 90% of respondents indicated that they use social media to disseminate public alerts. However, there are still late adopters. In addition, social media use is not universal or uniform across all EMAs. The findings presented in this article are based on interviews of representatives from 13 emergency management agencies (at the state and local level) in different locations across the United States.
Bennett, DeeDee M., "Just Another Communications Tool" (2015). Public Administration Faculty Publications. 85.