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Since developing "citizenship" is a prevalent goal for many service-learning programs and policies, Bernadette Chi's National Service Fellowship research proposed to examine what and how students learn "citizenship" through service-learning. She explored students' attitudes about service, their understanding of citizenship, and the relationship between the concepts as a way to consider how service-learning contributed to students' conceptions of citizenship. To suggest how and why students' attitudes differed, this report also briefly describes the significant role of teachers in shaping service-learning experiences, and the variety of service-learning practices that contribute to a diversity of outcomes. In coordination with a state-funded study performed by the Service-Learning Research and Development Center at the University of California, Berkeley, student and teacher interview data was collected from 107 students (from grades three to twelve) and 31 teachers in ten school districts throughout California. Comparison students and teachers who were not involved with service-learning were also interviewed. Additional information was collected through teacher portfolios that documented details about the service-learning projects in which students were engaged.

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