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This study described two self-contained, upper elementary, democratic classrooms in order to determine if there were specific qualities and characteristics in these classrooms which would motivate students to be more participatory citizens. The two classrooms were ethnically and geographically diverse, one in Southern California and the other in the Midwest. The participating teachers expressed a commitment to citizenship education and it had been determined that democratic elements were present in their classrooms. The study was based in the theoretical frameworks of constructivism and interpretivism, and an ethnographic methodology was utilized to describe the classroom environment. Analyses of the data were completed through within-case and cross-cue approaches.

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