In 1991 at the Wingspread Conference (Giles, Honnet, and Migliore, 1991) two broad questions emerged to help define and frame the evaluation of service-learning programs:
1) What was the effect of service-learning on intellectual, moral, and citizenship development of participants?
2) What was the effect of service-learning on the advancement of social institutions and democracy?
Schuman, Steven, "In Service of Service-Learning: Framing an evaluation for effective programs" (1994). Evaluation/Reflection. 28.