While many have tried to understand the notion of service-learning, no one seems to agree on one definition or description. A Wingspread conference in 1990 defined service-learning as both a philosophy and a program (Giles, Honnet, & Migliore, 1991). The National and Community I Service Act (1990) contained a four part definition which described characteristics and processes of service-learning, including reflective components which tie service experiences to a curriculum.
Shumer, Robert D., "Community ServiceLearning and the Vocational Teacher" (1993). Guides. 33.
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