In the effort to augment teacher candidate education beyond text-based direct instruction, universities and teacher preparation programs are incorporating more field-based interactions through which teacher candidates can master skills and reinforce pedagogy through experience. The term "service-learning" was first used by the Southern Regional Education Board in 1969 to describe "the accomplishment of tasks that meet genuine human needs in combination with conscious educational growth" (Staton, Giles & Cruz, 1999).
Brown, Elinor L. and Howard, Bobby R., "Becoming Culturally Responsive Teachers Through Service-Learning: A Case Study of Five Novice Classroom Teachers" (2005). Service Learning, General. 119.