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In their 1981 study, the Experiential Education Evaluation Project, Dan Conrad and Diane Hedin investigated the impact of a range of experiential education programs on secondary school students. The study, which involved more than 1000 secondary school students, compared the effects of five different types of experiential education programs-community service, internships, political action, community study, and adventure education on students' psychological, social, and intellectual development. The study found that the various programmatic forms of experiential education showed significant, positive effects in all three student outcome areas. It also revealed that certain programmatic features, such as clearly articulated program goals and well-delineated program structures, create the conditions under which the student outcomes are manifested.


Furco, A. (1996). Is Service-Learning Really Better Than Community Service? A Study of High School Service Program Outcomes In A. Furco and S.H. Billigs (Eds.) Service Learning The Essence of the Pedagogy (pp. 23-50). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Pub.

Part of the Advances in Service-Learning Research series.