Wehlage's (1989) study of 14 urban American high schools that effectively serve at-risk students, described the fundamental characteristics of those programs: (1) All effective schools created a structure in which students could feel themselves members of a community of learners and teachers. (2) Programs and curricula engaged students, responding to their needs, interests, and strengths. (3) Teachers accepted a proactive moral responsibility for educating at-risk youth. Putting these characteristics into practice is the task of educators today.
Cullen, Cecelia, "Membership and Engagement at Middle College High School" (1991). Service Learning, General. 240.