This pilot study compared students' perceptions of their experiences in direct versus indirect service-learning. Middle through high school students in a suburban school district in the Northeast were surveyed about their direct and indirect service-learning experiences along personal, social, and academic dimensions. In this study, direct service experiences had a stronger positive impact on students' perceptions of their social growth than indirect service experiences. Female students rated personal and social outcomes higher than their male counterparts. Female students rated personal and social outcomes higher than their male counterparts.
Coomey, Susan M. and Wilczenski, Felicia L., "Does the Service Matter? Comparative Benefits of Direct and Indirect Service Learning Experiences" (2005). Service Learning, General. 248.