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Journal of Special Education Technology


We report results of a national survey of secondary teachers who teach special education and/or English language arts in the United States. A total of 50 teachers from 27 different states completed the survey. In the survey, we asked teachers about their experience delivering distance and in-person instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic. We specifically focused on three broad areas: writing assignments, writing instructional practices, and adaptations used to support students with disabilities. We also collected information about teacher characteristics, technology use, and teacher attitudes and self-efficacy about writing. On average, teachers reported receiving minimal preparation to teach writing via distance or in-person instruction. When compared to in-person instruction, teachers reported using fewer writing assignments, evidence-based writing practices, and adaptations for students with disabilities during distance learning. We provide implications for teacher professional development and detail limitations related to sample size and response rate


This research publication reports the quantitative results of a national survey study of high school special education and English language arts teachers’ writing instructional practices during both in-person learning and the shift to distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. (Poch, A.L.)

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Sage in Journal of Special Education Technology on November 30, 2022, available online:

Reuse restricted to noncommercial and no derivative uses.