Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Counseling (MAC)



First Advisor

Robert Butler

Second Advisor

Kenneth A. Deffenbacher

Third Advisor

Scott Harrington


Studies have shown that locus of control orientation is related to emotional and behavioral adjustment to chronic pain. Researchers have begun the process of establishing the validity and reliability of the Pain Locus of Control Scale. This study was conducted to establish the concurrent validity of the PLC Scale at the time of follow-up from pain management treatment, an effort not previously undertaken. In addition, studies suggest that those persons with an Internal locus of control orientation demonstrate more favorable treatment outcomes, as compared to a Powerful others or Chance locus of control. This research examined the relationship between treatment outcome measures and locus of control orientations, as measured by the PLC Scale.

Data analysis revealed that the PLC Scale correlated significantly with all of the instruments used to establish concurrent validity. These included the Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale, the Coping Strategy Questionnaire, and the Cognitive Errors Questionnaire-Low Back Scale. In addition, the Internal orientation correlated significantly with favorable treatment outcomes, while the Powerful others and Chance orientations correlated with unfavorable outcomes.

Several limitations of the study were noted and discussed. Suggestions were made for further research; these included replicating the concurrent validity of the PLC Scale at the time of follow-up.


presented to the Department of Counseling and the Faculty of the Graduate College University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts in Counseling University of Nebraska at.Omaha

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Psychology Commons