Date of Award
Master of Arts (MA)
Dr. John M. Newton
Dr. James O. Johnston
Dr. D. T. Pedrini
Dr. Francis Hurst
Thirty years ago Sidney Pressey (1926) published an article describing an apparatus for presenting multiple choice questions which gave the student immediate feedback regarding the correctness of his response to the questions. Although this device was intended to be a "testing machine" rather than a "teaching machine", it is often generously designated the status of being the first teaching machine. Pressey's machine had little impact upon the educational world and for a generation teaching machines were all but forgotten. In the 1950's B.F. Skinner began the modern movement to automate education. Psychologists, but as noted by Bugeleki (1964, p. 208) "not necessarily as psychologists" have been largely responsible for the recent excitement about teaching machines.
Keele, L. Xavier, "Directionality as a Sequence Effect in Programmed Learning of a Verbal Concept" (1966). Student Work. 2312.
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