Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Specialist in Education (Ed.S.)


Educational Leadership


As we move into the 90's, recent studies have made it very clear that the United States is falling behind both national standards and international norms in the effort to make its youth literate in science. When viewing studies that compare our students internationally, we rank near the bottom in science (Project 2061, 1989). Very few elementary teachers have an adequate science background (Stefanich & Kelsey, 1989). As a consequence, elementary science teachers teach science infrequently and often emphasize the memorization of answers rather than learning exploration skills. This type of instruction and over dependence on textbooks can actually impede scientific literacy (Project 2061, 1989).


Presented to the Department of Educational Administration and the Faculty of the Graduate College University of Nebraska at Omaha In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Specialist in Education University of Nebraska at Omaha. Copyright Michael A. Foyt May, 1991