Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Scott Harrington

Second Advisor

Judith S. Harrington

Third Advisor

Jeannette Seaberry


This study examined whether the androgynous trait of instrumentality, (otherwise known as having an androgynous gender-type), and having a positive self-concept is related to higher mathematical ability in pre-adolescent girls in the seventh and eighth grades. Since participants were in both honors and average math classes, the additional variable of being in honors math versus regular math was also analyzed. There were 39 participants that were selected from Norris Middle School, which is in the Omaha Public School System. From these 39 participants, 18 were in honors math classes, while 21 were in regular math classes. The Piers-Harris Self-Concept scale was used to measure self-concept. The Children’s Sex Role Inventory was used to assess the participants’ gender role, or trait of instrumentality. The California Achievement Test’s math section was used to measure the subjects’ mathematical ability. Multiple regression was used to examine the independent variables of traits of instrumentality and self-concept as predictors to the dependent variable of mathematical ability. Pearson R correlation was used to examine the intercorrelations between the independent variables; while Univariate Analysis of Variance was used to analyze any main effects or interactions between the variables. Alpha was set at .05. Results of the study suggest that one’s trait of instrumentality and one’s level of self-concept do not predict mathematical achievement in pre-adolescent girls. However, the results did illustrate that being in honors mathematics class and having a positive self-concept were significant predictors of higher mathematical achievement on the CAT in the pre-adolescent girls who participated in this study. The results also illustrated that a masculine trait of instrumentality was significantly related to having a positive self-concept in the preadolescent girls who participated in this study.

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