Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Music (MMUS)



First Advisor

Dr. James Johnson


The Thirty-Two Variations of Beethoven and the Symphonic Etudes of Schumann are important landmarks in the piano literature. This paper shows the similarities and differences between these two works through an analysis of each work. As a byproduct of this analysis, it will also trace some of the ways in which variation form evolved from the Classical into the Romantic Era. This paper includes a brief introduction and definition of variation form followed by the discussion and analysis of these two works. Before the discussion of each work, background information is provided as a basis to understand the context in which the works are being discussed. The discussion of the Symphonic Etudes will include the comparison and contrast to the Thirty-Two Variations. The conclusion gives a list of similarities and differences that were derived from the analyses. The folk music of Poland was one of the greatest influences on the music of Frederic Chopin. This treatise will examine Chopin's knowledge of and experience with the folk music of his country and how he incorporated its stylistic elements into his mazurkas. Elements such as melody, harmony, texture, and form will be addressed, and special attention will be given to the Mazurkas Op. 68 to display how Chopin used the folk idiom within a particular set of pieces.


A Treatise Presented to the Department of Music and the Faculty of the Graduate College University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Music University of Nebraska at Omaha. Copyright 1999 Kenneth Soh, Lip-Khoon.