Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health, Physical Education and Recreation

First Advisor

Dr. JoAnn Eickhoff-Shemek


Tobacco use in the U.S. is the cause of approximately 440,000 deaths annually and is the leading preventable cause of death. Smoking can result in death due to cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, heart disease, and stroke. Smoking can also result in death due to cancers such as lung cancer, respiratory diseases such as pneumonia and bronchitis, and other deaths including diseases among infants and bum deaths (American Cancer Society, 2003). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that due to smoking, the cost of medical care and lost productivity added up to approximately $157 billion each year ("Annual smoking-attributable," 2002). The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) stated that in 1999, the adult prevalence of cigarette smoking had a median of 22.7 percent. Nebraska was slightly higher at 23.3 percent ("State-specific," 2000).


A Thesis Presented to the School of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation and the Faculty of the Graduate College University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Health, Physical Education, and Recreation With a Concentration in Fitness and Wellness Management University of Nebraska at Omaha. Copyright 2003 Jillian M. Golden.