Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Kay A. Keiser


Keeping up with technological innovations is a challenge for educational intuitions as they strive to prepare students to be competitive in a future workforce. This is an overwhelming task for educational leaders that extends beyond which technological device to purchase. This study examines the barriers to iPad integration in education and how the gradual release of responsibility method of instruction can be used to increase participants’ self-efficacy with iPads. The participants (N = 41) were teacher education graduate candidates enrolled in a Children’s Literature course in which they were provided access to iPads. Survey results revealed that candidates’ efficacy prior to the course was relatively high at above the midpoint on the 5-point likert scale with 5 being the highest score (M = 3.51, SD = 0.86). Even with a fairly high efficacy with iPads at the beginning of the study, the post-test espoused efficacy showed significant growth (M = 4.27, SD = 0.53). The results of the pre-test indicated a clear divide between the level of experiences with iPads. Based on this division, a two-way ANOVA was run to analyze how the group of candidates with low experience with iPads grew in efficacy in comparison to the group of candidates with a high level of experience with iPads. The repeated measures two-way ANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference amongst candidates’ espoused experience with iPads on the pre-test. In addition, both groups experienced significant growth throughout the course as demonstrated by the post-test scores for time F(1, 38), p< .01, η2 = 0.49. However, the gap between the groups’ espoused experience levels started to close by the end of the course, as indicated by the interaction between time and experience F(1, 39) = 10.32, p < .01, η2 = 0.21. Even though the lower experienced candidates did not reach the espoused level of experience that the higher experienced candidates F(1, 39) = 52.64, p < .01, η2 = 0.57, their growth was encouraging. These results support the benefits of eliminating barriers to technology integration in order for the use of technology to take place in classrooms at all levels. Study conclusions demonstrate the benefit of the implementation of carefully planned, research-based technology integration professional learning for teachers at all levels of education in order to increase student engagement and preparation for a 21st century workforce.


A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate College of the University of Nebraska in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education. Copyright 2014 Wendy L. Loewenstein.

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