Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

E.J. Gum


The eighteenth century in one sense may be viewed as the second Hundred Years War. The century saw France and England continue their struggle for colonial empire and commercial advantage. William Pitt the Elder (1706-1778) led England to victory in the mid-century conflict primarily through his use of English see Power.1 The cost of the conflict laid great burdens on the English taxpayer and English statesmen demanded that the colonies begin to bear a share of the cost of imperial defense. Such a policy firmly applied by Lord Townsend, led to the American Revolution which began a partial reversal of English fortunes. The French Revolution and Napoleon presented another threat that continued into the next century. Domestically England also faced challenges in the fields of politics, religion, morals and economics.


A Thesis Presented to the Department of History and the Faculty of the College of Graduate Studies University of Omaha In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts.

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