Month/Year of Graduation


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts (B.A.)


Political Science

First Advisor

Paul Landow


The United States’ Constitution provides certain protections for those accused of a crime, including proportionate punishment and the right to an attorney. There are sentencing guidelines in place, as well as appointed-counsel systems to ensure that everyone receives these protections when accused of a crime. Some research has shown that the type of counsel present at sentencing may affect the outcome of sentencing, although, the research on the topic is conflicting. Race is another variable that has been found to play into the role of sentencing, as well as gender and age. Other studies have suggested that the differences in sentencing may come from the judge’s mood, their gender, or if they are given a food break. The current study looked at how the variables of race, gender, age, counsel type, crime, week, day of the week, and time affected sentencing. All the variables, aside from the variables of race, gender, and age, were found to have a significant effect on sentencing. These variables did not pass tests of homogeneity or normality, so their effects on sentencing cannot be considered conclusive. While this study cannot be considered conclusive, it continues the research on criminal sentencing outcomes.

Included in

Criminal Law Commons