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Kim -

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Journal of School Health





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As COVID-19 has let many students into remote learning environments and exacerbated inequality among marginalized individuals, there is a growing concern about Bias-Based Bullying (BBB) in online spaces among school-aged youths. Learning modality and perceived school fairness may affect youth's likelihood of reporting BBB.


Data were collected as part of “No Place For Hate” (NPFH) project, which was conducted by an equity office of a school district. A sample of middle and high school students (N = 1117) in the school district was used as an analytic sample. We conducted a series of independent samples t tests and calculated a hierarchical stepwise multivariate regression model to examine the proposition.


Results demonstrated that students in fully remote modality reported slightly higher levels of witnessing BBB (t = 2.29, p < .05), lower perceived school fairness (t = −2.94, p < .01), and higher levels of likelihood of reporting BBB (t = 2.31, p < .05). Results of the regression model showed that perceived school fairness was positively associated with likelihood of reporting BBB, even when considering the influences of sociodemographic characteristics, learning modality, and experience of witnessing BBB.


Findings of this study suggest that learning modality and perceived school fairness can meaningfully explain witnesses' likelihood of reporting BBB. Additional research should continue investigating how schools can encourage students to increase their likelihood of reporting and adopt the bystander response of reporting against BBB at school to ensure school health and safety.


"This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Perceived School Fairness and Willingness to Report Bias-Based Bullying among Youth During COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of School Health, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited."