Political Science Quarterly
IN FEBRUARY 1997, THE TURKISH MILITARY INTERVENED in politics to protect secularism from the "rising Islamist threat." This inter- vention resulted in the toppling of the coalition government led by the Islamic-oriented Welfare Party (RP, Refah Partisi ). Many civil and political restrictions followed this intervention, including the closure of the RP by the Constitutional Court. Two years later, the Chief of Staff, Hüseyin Kivnkoģlu, stated that "the 28 February process," by which he meant the military-sanctioned political configuration, would continue for one thou- sand years if necessary.1 However, by 2012, only 15 years after the inter- vention, the military's ability to shape politics has diminished notably. By any measure, the civilian oversight of the military is now at its highest level since the first military coup in modern Turkey in I960.2 The Islamic- oriented Justice and Development Party (AK Party, Adalet ve Kalkmma Partisi)3 stayed in power for more than a de
Kilinc, Ramazan, "Critical Junctures, Catalysts, and Democratic Consolidation in Turkey" (2014). Political Science Faculty Publications. 37.