Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 2014

Publication Title

Political Science Quarterly





First Page


Last Page



IN FEBRUARY 1997, THE TURKISH MILITARY INTERVENED in politics to protect secularism from the "rising Islamist threat." This inter- vention resulted in the toppling of the coalition government led by the Islamic-oriented Welfare Party (RP, Refah Partisi ). Many civil and political restrictions followed this intervention, including the closure of the RP by the Constitutional Court. Two years later, the Chief of Staff, Hüseyin Kivnkoģlu, stated that "the 28 February process," by which he meant the military-sanctioned political configuration, would continue for one thou- sand years if necessary.1 However, by 2012, only 15 years after the inter- vention, the military's ability to shape politics has diminished notably. By any measure, the civilian oversight of the military is now at its highest level since the first military coup in modern Turkey in I960.2 The Islamic- oriented Justice and Development Party (AK Party, Adalet ve Kalkmma Partisi)3 stayed in power for more than a de


This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: "Critical Junctures, Catalysts, and Democratic Consolidation in Turkey" in Poltical Science Quarterly, 129(2) Summer 2014, 293-318, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.