By launching its space probe to the Moon, Chandrayaan-1, on 22 October 2008, India joined the United States (U.S.), Japan, Europe, Russia, and China in this accomplishment. The principal goal of the probe was to conduct mapping of the lunar surface, and among the scientific payloads it carried two were from the United States and three from the European Space Agency (ESA). This was a unique mission as it was an attempt to map highresolution, 3-D topography of entire Moon, get mineral composition of surface, and investigate the availability of water and Helium-3. Chandrayaan-1 operated until August 2009, coming to an abrupt end after 312 days, as opposed to the intended two years. Despite the setback, Chandrayaan-1 did achieve 95 percent of its planned objectives, and made the significant discovery of water ice molecules on the lunar surface.
Pant, Harsh V. and Lele, Ajey
"India in Space: Factors Shaping the Indian Trajectory,"
Space and Defense: Vol. 4:
3, Article 5.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.unomaha.edu/spaceanddefense/vol4/iss3/5
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